By: adverb and a preposition

By adverb and a preposition

“By” is an adverb and a preposition. It is also used to form part of phrasal verbs. Here our attention is on the adverb and preposition.

First, as a preposition. Here are some examples:

  • The play was written by Shakespeare (de Shakespeare).
  • I came by plane (En avión).
  • The light switch is right by the door (…está justo al lado de la puerta).
  • Mr.Zapatero was sitting by the window (al lado de la ventana).
  • The vase was made by hand (…hecho a mano).
  • Mr.Corbyn has lost public support by being too extreme (…ha perdido apoyo popular por ser demasiado extremista).
  • The teachers are paid by the hour (por hora).
  • I need to be by myself (necesito estar solo).

Now as an adverb.

  • Let me pass by (déjenme pasar).
  • Sanchez walked by me without even saying hello (Señor Sanchez pasó por mi lado sin saludarme).
  • The children watched the parade march by (los niños vieron pasar el desfile).

There are also some expressions using “by”. Examine these:

  • “By and large” = por lo general
  • He mentioned it “by the by” = lo mencionó de pasada.

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